The core objective of the Aditya-L1 spacecraft is to study the dynamics of the solar upper atmosphere, encompassing the chromosphere and corona.

ISRO successfully launched India's inaugural solar mission, the Aditya-L1 mission, today. The spacecraft initiated its journey from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota at 11:50 AM, commencing a 125-day expedition. The mission's objective is to position the spacecraft in a halo orbit situated approximately 1.5 million kilometers away from Earth, located near Lagrange point 1 (L1).

The primary objectives of the Aditya-L1 mission revolve around conducting a comprehensive study of the Sun and its solar activities, with the aim of understanding their immediate impact on space weather conditions

Initially, the Aditya-L1 will be positioned in a low Earth orbit. Subsequently, its orbit will be adjusted to a more elliptical shape, directing it toward Lagrange point L1. Ultimately, it will depart Earth's gravitational Sphere of Influence (SOI). Following this, the spacecraft will enter a cruise phase and be maneuvered into a vast halo orbit encircling Lagrange point L1.

The spacecraft was launched aboard a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), a reliable launch vehicle commonly used for numerous ISRO missions. Aditya-L1 marks the 25th mission employing the PSLV-XL configuration.

This spacecraft is equipped with four remote-sensing payloads and three in-situ payloads. Among these, the Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS) and the High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS) hold special significance as they are tasked with the critical mission of observing the Sun as a star. The instruments onboard Aditya-L1 have been meticulously calibrated to study the solar atmosphere and the surrounding conditions at Lagrange point L1.

The Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC), which serves as the main payload for Aditya L1, is designed to transmit a total of 1,440 images daily to the ground station for thorough analysis once it reaches its designated orbit. As indicated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the VELC payload, weighing 190 kg, is programmed to transmit images for the duration of five years, which corresponds to the satellite’s expected operational lifespan. However, the actual duration may extend beyond this period, contingent upon the consumption of its fuel resources.

The main objective of the Aditya-L1 spacecraft is to investigate the behavior of the solar upper atmosphere, encompassing the chromosphere and corona. It will delve into the physics governing the solar corona and seek to understand the mechanisms behind its heating. Additionally, the spacecraft intends to unravel the factors influencing space weather and the complex series of processes occurring across different solar layers, leading to solar eruptive events.